John Tudor, Jr. – Greenville, Pitts, North Carolina


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John Tudor Jr. 

Birth: 1720

Isle of Wight, Isle of Wight, Virginia, United States

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First Marriage: about 1748 Brunswick County, Virginia to Elizabeth Fraser
Second Marriage: about 1761 in Granville County, North Carolina to Elizabeth Seymour White
Third Marriage: before 1764 in Brunswick County, Virginia to Frances Phillips
 
Death

 

Granville County, North Carolina
Granville County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 59,916. Its county seat is Oxford. Wikipedia
Burial: 
Non-Cemetery Burial Created by: Terri T 
Record added: Mar 20, 2016 
Find A Grave Memorial# 159792522

“JOHN TUDOR, SR. b. ca. 1695; d. ca. 1721. (A very young man). Little is known about John Tudor, SR. d. intestate 1771 in Surry Co., VA.. Inventory of his estate was filed under JOHN TEDDER in Surry Co., VA.. He left a widow named Mary and 2 young sons- Benjamin Tudor, and John Tudor, JR.

It is known that the widow Mary m2. to the co-administrator of the estate, Henry Rose, some months prior to the filing of the Inventory 1 Ap. 1721. Proof that he left 2 young sons comes from the Deeds & Estate records of Henry Rose, when he explains the relationship to his wife Mary, and refers to them as step-sons when he deeded land to them. John Tudor, SR. had modest household furnishings, some pewter, a Bible, and a Book of Common Prayer (suggesting a link to the Church of England), and shoemaker’s tools along with a ‘parcel of leather. (suggesting he had been a shoemaker by trade).

JOHN TUDOR JR. was b. ca 1720 ; d. 1782 Granville Co., N. C.. It is highly probable that he was born in VA.. He was born no later than 1720 and could have been born a few years earlier. It is believed that he spent his ‘growing up’ years in the Isle of Wight Co., VA.. The first record that we have of John Tudor, JR., is a deed to him from his step-father, Henry Rose, in Brunswick Vo., VA., dated 7 June, 1750, which states that both men were living in Brunswick Vo., VA.. Henry Rose deeded the remainder of the 342 acre tract of land in Brunswick Co., VA., but reserved interest for himself and his wife, Mary, to reside on the tract. Henry Rose died about 1752 and John Tudor, JR., remained in Brunswick Co., VA., until 1764, when he moved to Granville Co., N.C., with his own family and other TUDOR relatives. John Tudor, JR. m 1st Elizabeth [nee ???] 1749-69. There is no evidence to tell us what her maiden name was. There is evidence that she died before 1762. . and John Tudor, JR., married another Elizabeth. There is evidence that she was a daughter of Valentine White, and OUR TUDOR LINE traces to this Elizabeth. The 2nd Elizabeth was the mother of BLUMER TUDOR, our ancestor.

The children of John Tudor, JR., were: A. Phoebe Tudor, b, ca, 1750; m. John Morris. B. Henry Tudor, b. ca. 1752; d. by 1782; m. Nancy, C. John Tudor III, b. 1754, had a R/W pension. A R/W soldier who went to Madison Co., KY..

He m. 1st 1779 in Granville Co., N.C.; to Martha Search. He m. 2nd to Frances Phillips, m 3rd to Elizabeth White. These were the children of his 1st wife.

Children of his 2nd wife were: D. Valentine Tudor, b. 1764; m. Granville Co., N.C., to Elizabeth Hicks. Valentine Tudor had a R/W pension. E. Tabitha Tudor, b. 1766, m. 1784 Granville Co., N.C., to Pleasant Whitlow. F. Winefred Tudor, b. ca. 1769; m. James Long. G. BLUMER TUDOR, (our ancestor), b. 1770-72 Granville Co., N.C.; m. 21 May, 1795 in Madison Co., KY. to CHARITY TURNER. (more later). H. Daniel Tudor, b. 1774; m. Nancy Moberly. I. Anne Tudor, b. ca. 1777, m. Samuel Moberly.

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Madison County, Kentucky

During the migration in 1785-1787, the widow Elizabeth took her 6 youngest children to Madison Co., KY., with her eldest son Valentine & his family. There is evidence that some of her older children joined her there. She died in Madison Co., KY., amongst her children.”

source: 9 September 2015 by ColeScottCameron1

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John Tudor, Sr. – Denbigh, Clwyd, Wales


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denbigh-wales_castle

John Tudor, Sr.

Born: 1684 in Denbigh, Clwyd, Wales, United Kingdom.

Died: 1721 in Surry County, Virginia.

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Eastover Manor House on the James- 1800’s Plantation Home

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Married: 1717 to Mary Seat (aka Seate) in Isle of Wight, Virginia.

Children: John Jr. and Benjamin Tudor. 

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Surry County, Virginia is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Its county seat is Surry. In 1652, Surry County was formed from the portion of James City County south of the James River.Wikipedia

Image result for Surry Co., VA

“JOHN TUDOR, SR. b. ca. 1695; d. ca. 1721. (A very young man). Little is known about John Tudor, SR. d. intestate 1771 in Surry Co., VA.. Inventory of his estate was filed under JOHN TEDDER in Surry Co., VA.. He left a widow named Mary and 2 young sons- Benjamin Tudor, and John Tudor, Jr. It is known that the widow Mary m2. to the co-administrator of the estate, Henry Rose, some months prior to the filing of the Inventory 1 Ap. 1721. Proof that he left 2 young sons comes from the Deeds & Estate records of Henry Rose, when he explains the relationship to his wife Mary, and refers to them as step-sons when he deeded land to them. John Tudor, SR. had modest household furnishings, some pewter, a Bible, and a Book of Common Prayer (suggesting a link to the Church of England), and shoemaker’s tools along with a ‘parcel of leather. (suggesting he had been a shoemaker by trade).

JOHN TUDOR JR. was b. ca 1720 ; d. 1782 Granville Co., N. C.. It is highly probable that he was born in VA.. He was born no later than 1720 and could have been born a few years earlier. It is believed that he spent his ‘growing up’ years in the Isle of Wight Co., VA. The first record that we have of John Tudor, JR., is a deed to him from his step-father, Henry Rose, in Brunswick, VA, dated 7 June, 1750, which states that both men were living in Brunswick, VA. 

Henry Rose deeded the remainder of the 342 acre tract of land in Brunswick, VA. but reserved interest for himself and his wife, Mary, to reside on the tract. Henry Rose died about 1752 and John Tudor, JR., remained in Brunswick Co., VA., until 1764, when he moved to Granville Co., N.C., with his own family and other TUDOR relatives. John Tudor, JR. m 1st Elizabeth [nee ???] 1749-69. There is no evidence to tell us what her maiden name was. There is evidence that she died before 1762. . and John Tudor, JR., married another Elizabeth Seymour White. There is evidence that she was a daughter of Valentine White, and OUR TUDOR LINE traces to this Elizabeth. The 2nd Elizabeth was the mother of BLUMER TUDOR, our ancestor.

The children of John Tudor, JR., were: A. Phoebe Tudor, b, ca, 1750; m. John Morris. B. Henry Tudor, b. ca. 1752; d. by 1782; m. Nancy, C. John Tudor III, b. 1754, had a R/W pension. A R/W soldier who went to Madison Co., KY..

He m. 1st 1779 in Granville, N.C.; to Martha Search. He m. 2nd to Frances Phillips, m 3rd to Elizabeth White. These were the children of his 1st wife.

Children of his 2nd wife were: D. Valentine Tudor, b. 1764; m. Granville Co., N.C., to Elizabeth Hicks. Valentine Tudor had a R/W pension. E. Tabitha Tudor, b. 1766, m. 1784 Granville Co., N.C., to Pleasant Whitlow. F. Winifred Tudor, b. ca. 1769; m. James Long. G. BLUMER TUDOR, (our ancestor), b. 1770-72 Granville Co., N.C.; m. 21 May, 1795 in Madison Co., KY. to CHARITY TURNER. (more later). H. Daniel Tudor, b. 1774; m. Nancy Moberly. I. Anne Tudor, b. ca. 1777, m. Samuel Moberly. During the migration in 1785-1787, the widow Elizabeth took her 6 youngest children to Madison Co., KY., with her eldest son Valentine & his family. There is evidence that some of her older children joined her there. She died in Madison Co., KY., amongst her children.”

source: 9 September 2015 by ColeScottCameron1, FamilySearch.org Website

 

 

 

Linderman Family Genealogy~Dubuque, Iowa


705 W. Third Street, Dubuque, Iowa 52001

Home built by E. F. Linderman & Gudrun Ivara (Lund) Linderman

Edward Francis Linderman, 705 W. Third Street, Dubuque, Iowa

Shirley, Jimmie, Dickie, Gladys, and Edward Linderman~World War II~Dubuque, Iowa

Written by Roy Leonard “Jimmie” Nelson, Jr.

“Winter school work done in dining room next to coal burning pot belly stove. Heavy drapes to close living room off. House heated by registers, water circulated by furnace in basement. Coal storage room in basement to be hand fed to furnace. Sometime during W.W. II Grandpa had the furnace converted to oil fed. In the basement there was a vegetable room for canned foods, sacks of potatoes, and bags of sugar, etc…

There was a double sink to wash clothes, and one sink had a wringer. There was a four burner stove to heat copper boiler for washing clothes (hot water). Basement foundation large stones. They were white washed every summer.

Three bedrooms upstairs. Me & Grandpa across from each other, bathroom head of the stairs. Mom & Shirley & Dickie on cot in front bedroom and stairs to divided attic, basement, main floor, and upstairs attic.

Backyard, wall with 2 car garage one for storage & one for Grandpa’s 1937 Buick, 2 door. In the winter grandpa would take battery to basement to charge. He would open the door while he charged battery & run motor for a while to circulate motor.

During W.W. II Grandpa had the s/w radio on all day long so we knew what part of the world the fighting was going on. He got the Chicago Tribune with all of the war locations, etc.

When Grandpa was listening to the radio, reading, he used to roll Prince Albert out of the can. He smoked for years, he just up and quit.

3rd. Street was one of the steepest streets in Dubuque & Grandpa walked it after going downtown to the Stock Market. One day it got his wind, so doctor told him to stop smoking & he did.

Grandpa was a Jehovah’s Witness, a real bible study man. He knew a little about everything, a very smart man.

He did not like kids for years. Grandpa was a very frugal man because money was very tight when he grew up.

His lifetime employment was with the government out of Rock Island, Illinois. He used to cut down trees to use as wing dams to help control the Mississippi Spring floods. Later government dams to help control the floods from Minnesota to New Orleans, Louisiana.

Grandpa worked his way up to barge inventory from Rock Island, the main office still there today. Rock Island, Illinois Munitions Factory, is the only one on the river that still makes our machine gun bullets and bombs.

He got Uncle Arturo “Art” Ayala a job with the Rhode Island office. “Ari” started out sweeping floors & after many years worked his way up to Lock Master – Lock & Dam III- Dubuque, Iowa. That was neat because we could walk the dam to Wisconsin side. Pretty neat to see all of that water rushing through the locks.

When we were young, family and friends would catch a bus up to Eagle Point Park. It was beautiful place with lots of room for kids to play. Beautiful rock gardens, tennis courts, etc. There are several lookout places so you can see this Mississippi, Wisconsin & Illinois & Eppie & Art Ayala’s government house at the Lock & Dam. Good old days. That was quite a treat!

Grandpa turned out to be a very interesting person with contact with a variety of people. Before us kids came along, Grandpa had done a lot of traveling thru the Midwest, and Hot Springs, Arkansas. Surprise for me.

After I got out of the service (Korea period), 1950-1953, grandpa had changed & became the kind of person you’d want to visit with. Lucky me.”

Sol Ross “Conrad” Tudor~~English And Scottish Ancestors


Sol Ross and Leonard Ross Tudor, 1956, Stephenville, TexasStephenville, TX

(from left to right) Ann & Wayne Tudor, (middle row) Anita, Gladys, Len, Steve, Don, Ross, and Wayne Tudor, 1961, Stephenville, Erath County, Texas, Don, Wayne, and Ross Tudor, 1961 (last row) Sol Ross Tudor, and Donald Raymond Tudor, 1961, Stephenville, Erath County, Texas.
Wayne Tudor with children: Len, Don, Anita, and Steve, Texas, 1961

courtesy of Annie Mae (McCann)Tudor, June 2014

ComancheTexasBankBuilding702

Sol Ross “Conrad” Tudor
 
Birth: Jul. 5, 1890
Stephenville
Erath County
Texas, USA
Death: Dec. 31, 1968
Stephenville
Erath County
Texas, USA

On double marker with Bergie M. Tudor (1899-1941)
Married Bergie Mae (Mobley) on 6 March 1918 in Erath County, Texas.Resided in Stephenville, Erath County, Texas from 1890-1968.

He was the son of Thomas Benton “T.B.” Tudor and Sallie Hampton (Keith) Tudor of Tippah County, Mississippi.Sol and Bergie had 4 children together: Leonard Doyle, Raymond Horton, Mae Corrine (Williams), and Donald Wayne Tudor.
Sol was a farmer and Bergie was a homemaker.My husband, Leonard Ross Tudor, was named after his Paternal Grandfather, Sol Ross Tudor, also known as Conrad, and his uncle Leonard.

name: Ross Sol Tudor
event: Draft Registration
event date: 1942
event place: Stephenville, Erath, Texas
gender: Male
birth date: 05 Jul 1890
nara publication title: World War II Draft Cards (4th Registration) for the State of Texas
nara publication number:  
arc identifier: 576252
film number: 4161310
digital folder number: 004161310
image number: 02842
Citing this Record
“United States, World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942,” index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/XP51-G6B : accessed 10 Feb 2013), Ross Sol Tudor, 1942; citing NARA microfilm publications M1939, M1936, and M1937; FHL microfilm 4161310.

1920 Census for Stephenville, Erath County, Texas records: SOL ROSS TUDOR, M, W, AGE 29, MARRIED, TEXAS, FARMER, FATHER BORN IN MISSISSIPPI, MOTHER BORN IN TENNESSEE.

S. ROSS TUDOR, DISTRICT 1, STEPHENVILLE, ERATH COUNTY, TEXAS, AGE 39, BORN IN TEXAS, MARRIED AT 27, WHITE, MALE, PARENTS BOTH BORN IN MISSISSIPPI, CLERK IN HOTEL, OWNED HOME WORTH $1500.

name:S Ross Tudor
event:Census
event date:1930
event place:Stephenville, Erath, Texas
gender:Male
age:39
marital status:Married
race:White
birthplace:Texas
estimated birth year:1891
immigration year:
relationship to head of household:Head
father’s birthplace:Mississippi
mother’s birthplace:Mississippi
enumeration district number:0001
family number:124
sheet number and letter:5A
line number:50
nara publication:T626, roll 2326
film number:2342060
digital folder number:4547949
image number:00080
HouseholdGenderAgeBirthplace
headS Ross TudorM39Texas
wifeBergie M TudorF30Texas
sonLenord D TudorM11Texas
sonRaymond H TudorM7Texas
daughterMarge C TudorF3Texas
sonDonald W TudorM2Texas

Family links:
Parents:
Thomas Benton Tudor (1842 – 1917)
Sallie Hampton Keith Tudor (1845 – 1924)

Spouse:
Bergie Mae Mobley Tudor (1899 – 1941)*

Children:
Raymond Horton Tudor (1922 – 2001)*
Corinne Mae Tudor Williams (1926 – 1992)*
Donald Wayne Tudor (1927 – 2012)*

Burial:
West End Cemetery
Stephenville
Erath County
Texas, USA
 
Maintained by: TEXAS TUDORS
Originally Created by: Ken Jones
Record added: Jul 29, 2006
Find A Grave Memorial# 15078889

Related articles

Donald Wayne Tudor~~Stephenville, Erath County, Texas (texastudorsmemorials.wordpress.com)
Thomas Benton “T.B.” Tudor~Southern Heroes (texastudorsmemorials.wordpress.com)

Our Roots In Europe~German, Moravian, Luxembourgish, Norwegian, Scottish, Irish, and English


Europe [1] encompasses an area of 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 square miles), stretching from Asia to the Atlantic, and from Africa to the Arctic. European countries welcome more than 480 million international visitors per year, more than half of the global market, and 7 of the 10 most visited countries are European nations. It’s easy to see why – a well preserved cultural heritage, open borders and efficient infrastructure makes visiting Europe a breeze, and rarely will you have to travel more than a few hours before you can immerse yourself in a new culture, and dive into a different phrasebook. Although it is the world’s second smallest continent in land surface area, there are profound differences between the cultures and ways of life in its countries.

Europe consists of a diverse set of countries that each have their own identity, language and culture. Below is a rough grouping of these countries into regions:

Map of Europe’s regions

  Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Transnistria)
The Balkans have a rich, though often turbulent, history with wonderful nature, charming multicultural towns, impressive monasteries and citadels dotting the hillsides, mighty mountains sprinkled with a liberal dose of beautiful forests and pleasant lakes.

Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)
Three fascinating states that have glorious beaches along an extensive coastline, medieval old towns, and beautiful natural scenery. Estonia has linguistic and cultural ties with Finland.
Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands)
These supposedly flat states have a lot to offer the traveller. The Netherlands is known for its clogs, cheese, tulips and windmills, and for its liberal attitudes and painters. Belgium is a multilingual country with beautiful historic cities, bordering Luxembourg at the rolling hills of the Ardennes.

Britain and Ireland (Guernsey, Ireland, Isle of Man, Jersey, United Kingdom)
Britain is a diverse patchwork of native and immigrant cultures, possessing a fascinating history and dynamic modern culture, both of which remain hugely influential in the wider world. Ireland has rolling landscapes and characteristic customs, traditions and folklore.
Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)
The Caucasus is a mountain range lying between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, considered part of the natural boundary between Europe and Asia. The Caucasus is a dense, warm, friendly and generally safe travel region. There are some incredibly diverse landscapes and an exceptional wealth of ancient churches, cathedrals and monasteries.
Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland)
Straddling east and west, Central Europe is the region where Germanic culture meets Slavic culture. It is home to innumerable historic towns, fairy-tale castles, beer, forests, unspoiled farmland, and plenty of mountain ranges, including the mighty Alps.
France and Monaco
The world’s most popular tourist destination and geographically one of the most diverse countries of Europe. Some of its tourist attractions include Paris, the French Riviera, the Atlantic beaches, the winter sports resorts of the Alps, the castles of the Loire Valley, Brittany and Normandy, and the rural landscape of the Provence. The country is also known for its gastronomy (particularly wines and cheeses), history, culture and fashion.
Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus
Counting the most amount of sun-hours in Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean is a haven for beach-goers, party-people and cultural enthusiasts alike.
Iberia (Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal, SpainThe Iberian countries are great destinations for their rich and unique cultures, lively cities, beautiful countryside and friendly inhabitants.

Italian Peninsula (Italy, Malta, San Marino, Vatican City)
Rome, Florence, Venice and Pisa are on many travellers’ itineraries, but these are just a few of Italy’s destinations. Italy has more history and culture packed into it than many other countries combined.
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
Russia is a country of vast, empty expanses that spans all the way east to the Pacific Ocean. Ukraine is a diverse country that has a lot to offer, from the beach resorts of the Black Sea to the beautiful cities Odessa, Lviv and Kiev. North of Ukraine lies Belarus, a country unlike anywhere else, commonly referred to as the last dictatorship of Europe.
Scandinavia and the Nordics (Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden)
Spectacular scenery of mountains, lakes, glaciers, geysers, waterfalls and volcanoes. Finland is culturally distinct as it has a language unlike the Scandinavian languages.
See also: European microstates

Politically, some countries are a member of the European Union, a supranational and intergovernmental union that aims to integrate the states of Europe in a common political framework. However, Europe is a diverse region and countries have varying ideas of potential membership — some with no intention of joining at all. The eastern border of Europe is ill-defined. Parts of Russia, Turkey and the Caucasus are sometimes considered to be a part of Asia due to culture, history and geography.

Central Europe~~Land of My German and Moravian-Czech Ancestors


Central Europe

Central Europe is a region forming the heart of Europe. It includes the German-speaking countries, four former Warsaw Pact member states that have successfully joined the European Union, and Slovenia, a former Yugoslav republic, now also a member of the EU. Only Switzerland and tiny Liechtenstein are not EU member states but share close economic and cultural ties with the region but also have stayed away largely for economic and historical reasons. It is a large and important region stretching from the Baltic and North Sea in the north to the Adriatic in the south. It is also home to some of Europe’s and the world’s most prosperous economies and cities. Lastly, it includes the fabled mountain range of the Alps which acts a transition zone between the latin, germanic and slavic cultures which all call the region home.

Countries

Austria
The Alps, historic cities and villages, and a wealth of cultural attractions
Czech Republic
Beautiful forests and mountains, and some of the most notable architectural attractions in Europe
Germany

Hungary

 

Liechtenstein
Tiny state which is a financial centre as well as having some picture-postcard scenery

 

Poland
Formerly the sleeping giant of Europe, modern-day Poland is a thriving nation with important national parks and countless historical attractions

 

Slovakia
Slavic region formerly best known as High Hungary, after WW I part of Czechoslovakia, sovereign since 1993. Interesting for its countryside, especially the Tatra Mountains.

 

Slovenia
Often called the miniature Europe, it is on the crossroads of the Slavic, Germanic and the Romanic world.

 

Switzerland

 

Cities

Central Europe has some of the oldest and best preserved cities on the continent. Below is a list of nine of the most notable:

 

  • Berlin — the capital of reunited Germany since 1990, it was divided by force for 45 years during the Cold War; it has emerged as a international cultural centre and an area of rapid development since the fall of the Berlin Wall.
  • Bratislava – the political, cultural, and economic centre of Slovakia with beautiful historical buildings in the old town.
  • Budapest — a wealth of grand architecture, culture and its famous thermal baths, as well as one of the oldest metro systems in the world.
  • Geneva — a wealthy urban banking centre that is home to many international agencies like the Red Cross and the United Nations.
  • Ljubljana — picturesque alpine capital of Slovenia, a charming baroque city with stunning architecture and dynamic nightlife.
  • Munich — the well to do capital of the southern German federal-state of Bavaria, this gateway to the Alps is famous for Oktoberfest, the world’s largest beer festival.
  • Prague — one of Europe’s most attractive and well preserved large cities and has emerged as an expatriate melting pot since the opening of the Iron Curtain.

The economic powerhouse of Europe with major metropolitan cities and some lovely countryside.

Other destinations

  • Alps — probably one of the most important winter destinations in the world, that is home to summer resorts too
  • Baltic Sea Coast — Germany and Poland share the Baltic Sea coast of Central Europe with hundreds of miles of sandy beaches and resorts
  • Białowieża National Park — a huge area of ancient woodland in Poland designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Black Forest — smaller mountain range in southwest Germany famous for its scenery and history
  • East Frisian Islands — Germany has many tourist islands in the North Sea
  • Lake Balaton — this scenic Hungarian lake is the largest lake in Central Europe and a year-round tourist hub
  • Neuschwanstein Castle — the well-known fairy-tale castle in the Bavarian Alps in Germany
  • Romantic Road — a popular tourist route through historical towns and romantic castles in Southern Germany
  • Vysoké Tatry — beautiful and unspoiled mountain range peaking at 2600 meters above sea level

Castles appearing straight out of fairy tales dot the entire landscape of Central Europe. Pictured here is Schloss Neuschwanstein near Füssen, Germany.

While ethnically different, the countries of Central Europe share a similar culture and history throughout the ages. Two of the most important political units in the region were the German and Austro-Hungarian empires. They were preceded in the Middle Ages by the Holy Roman Empire, a patchwork of states and statelets whose extent varied over time. Ethnic conflict was a major problem for hundreds of years in Central Europe and culminated in the horrors of the Second World War. With the peaceful reunification of Germany and the recent expansion of the EU to encompass the former Warsaw Pact states in the region, this problem finally seems to have been solved.

It is a common mistake by outsiders to label all the former Warsaw Pact states in the region as being in Eastern Europe. Almost uniformly, inhabitants of Central Europe will be flattered and pleased if you correctly describe their countries as “central European” both geographically and culturally. Conversely, they may be upset if you lapse into Cold War stereotypes. East and West Germany were countries, so better to call it eastern and western Germany. Reunification is all but a thing of the past and seen in a more or less positive light by most there and in all of Central Europe so try to avoid labeling Germans by their recent past. Remember Germans are Germans but Austrians, Liechtensteiners and most Swiss and Luxembourgers all speak German, but are not German! Czech, Polish or Slovakian may sound similar to Russian, but inhabitants of these countries will not take kindly to assumptions of cultural overlap. Lastly, keep in mind that the Czech Republic and Slovakia once shared a country as well and Slovaks in general are very proud of their new found independence.

While they are not currently considered part of Central Europe, the regions of western Ukraine, Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia), Alsace and parts of Lorraine (France), and South Tyrol/Alto-Adige province (Italy), are sometimes also considered Central European. This is due either to their current and or past ethnic makeup and/or previous political histories. The Kaliningrad oblast spent most of its history as a German speaking region and South Tirol remains a largely German-speaking region in northern Italy maintaining strong cultural ties to Austria. Even though Ukraine is predominantly an orthodox country, its westernmost part for the centuries was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and later passed to Austria-Hungary which to some extent influenced it’s unique culture.

Talk

Central Europe, because of its rich heritage of nationalities, likewise is home to many languages. Some languages enjoy national status and thus are taught in schools and used widely in the media. Others however are only regional languages or minority languages and thus are sadly in danger of eventual extinction even though efforts are underway to try to preserve them.

German has the largest number of native speakers in the region and acts as the single “official” language of Austria, Germany and Liechtenstein. In Switzerland, German is the mother tongue of 2/3 of the population and the dominant language of the four official Swiss languages (German, French, Italian & Romansh). There is a small German speaking minority to be found in Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary. It is also spoken outside Central Europe in eastern Belgium and France, and northern Italy (mainly in the region of South Tyrol/Alto Adige). German can be very diverse and appears in many different colorful dialects particular in the Southern German-speaking world (Southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol) were tradition and dialect remains strong.

Czech and Slovak are very closely related and are mutually intelligible. The Sorbian language(s) spoken in eastern Germany near the Polish frontier is also a close relative.

Polish is the dominant language in all regions of Poland. Kashubian, a regional Slavonic language, is spoken in the region around Gdansk in Pomerania in northern Poland. Silesian is a regional language/dialect, (depending on who you ask) found in southwest Poland.

Hungarian is one of the most difficult languages for other Europeans to learn, as it originates from a different language family and is related to Finnish and Estonian. There are 5 million Hungarian speakers living outside Hungary in neighboring countries such as Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia, eastern Austria and southern Slovakia.

French or Italian are spoken by the majority of the population in the southern and western regions of Switzerland, while Swiss German is commonly taught as a second language. French plays a historic role in alpine northern Italy in the French border regions.

In the Swiss Canton of Graubünden or Grison, Romansh is spoken as a regional language. Almost all Romansh speakers speak either Swiss German and/or Italian as well. It is closely related to Ladin which is spoken in a few mountain valleys of northern Italy and is another endangered regional language. Sadly it is being replaced by German or Italian.

Slovenian is the official language of Slovenia, but it is also spoken by the Slovenian minorities in southern Austria, northeastern Italy and western Hungary. There is also a small Croatian minority in Austria’s Burgenland. Sorbian, Frisian and Low German are Germany’s three native minority languages with exception of Roma. Sorbian is related to Polish and Czech and can be found spoken in both the eastern states of Saxony and Brandenburg. All Sorbs speak German as well and the current Minister President (Governor) of the German federal-state of Saxony is even Sorbian! Frisian is related to English and Dutch and is spoken by tiny minority communities in Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen and neighboring communities in the Netherlands.

Lastly, Low German is spoken by rural communities or as a second language by a few in most federal states of northern Germany and still has a significant role to play in the city states of Bremen, Hamburg and Luebeck and in the states of Niedersachsen, Schleswig-Holstein and particular in the eastern federal-state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. All three German minority languages are endangered languages. Efforts are underway to preserve the languages and their culture but it is seemingly a losing battle.

Finding people who speak and understand English is not a problem in most regions of Central Europe, especially in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. In Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Hungary and the Czech Republic, English is widely spoken in the larger cities and by younger people; German and Russian are also spoken and understood by many older people in these countries. Russian, since the end of the Cold War and the unification of Europe is in steady decline. Today German remains important, more for financial and economic reasons instead of cultural or political reasons, as was the case in the past. Slovenians and the Swiss by far lead the region in their ability to speak many different tongues.